DEFINITION OF VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS
Ventricular septal defect is often not directly detectable at birth, especially if the hole is small defect. These abnormalities may even have no symptoms until well into childhood.
- Shortness of breath and easily tired.
- Loss of appetite.
- Weight gain is inhibited.
- Panting and sweating profusely when eating or crying.
- Pale skin, and may turn blue around the lips and nails.
- Frequent respiratory infections.
- Fast heart rate and irregular.
These symptoms would be very dangerous if neglected and can be fatal.
Ventricular septal defect is generally a congenital heart defect due to a disturbance in the process of formation during the fetal heart, in which a dividing wall between the right ventricle and the left ventricle of the heart does not close completely. The cause of this disorder itself remains unclear. However, it is known that ventricular septal defects are more common in Asians, in people with a history of congenital heart disease in the family, and in people with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome.
On physical examination, patients with ventricular septal defect, the doctor will find their heart murmur (heart sounds that sounded like rustling). Follow-up examinations were then performed to confirm the diagnosis are:
- Pulse Oximeter . A portable tool to measure oxygen levels in the blood by placing the sensor in the patient’s fingertip.
- Echocardiogram . This test is done to get a picture of the heart and its parts using sound waves. The resulting image is graphically displayed on the screen to move the appliance.
- Cardiac catheterization . This method is done by inserting a thin elastic hose (catheter) through a vein in the groin, neck or arms, to be directed toward the heart.
Besides, we can also do some of the following checks to see if complications have occurred:
- Chest X-rays . Imaging method with electromagnetic waves to see the condition of the heart and lungs.
- Elektokardiogram . This test is done by attaching leads to the skin to record the electrical activity of the heart.
Surgery is the main treatment option, particularly when the defect holes are large and cause significant symptoms. Medications can be given to treat symptoms before surgery can be performed, or until the patient’s condition allows for surgery. Ventricular septal defect is small, it is often the hole can close by itself. In such cases, the drugs can also be given for symptoms that may arise, while monitoring the patient’s progress.
- Closure catheter . The closure of the hole in the septum done with the process of cardiac catheterization, without performing surgery.
- Cardiac surgery . Done by opening the chest cavity and perform suturing holes in the septum of the heart. During the surgery progresses, the heart and lungs temporarily replaced by a machine called a heart-lung machine .
- The combined procedure (hybrid procedure) . In the combined procedure, incisions are made only small to insert a catheter into the heart without opening the chest cavity and without the need to stop the heart while working. Closure of the hole in the septum and then carried through the catheter. With more minimal injury, recovery time with this procedure is of course faster than a surgical procedure.
Drugs that can be given to treat the symptoms that appear on the ventricular septal defect, among others:
- Diuretik. This type of drug used to reduce excess fluid from the body so that the work of the heart is lighter and the patient feels better.
- Vasodilators . Can reduce the pressure in the left atrium of heart patients and make the heart beat more regularly.
- Digoxin . Adding to the power of the heart muscle to pump blood.
Ventricular septal defect small size probably will not cause problems. However, if the defect hole medium to large, these disorders can cause serious problems that may lead to death, therefore must be addressed.
In general, nothing can be done to prevent the occurrence of ventricular septal defect. But at least the application of a good lifestyle for maintaining a healthy pregnancy and fetus during pregnancy remains to be done. Among others are: